Tuesday, 23 September 2008

Sure Shot Younger Looking Skin Formula!

With big brands spending millions of dollars on advertising, people think that these products will be the best. But have you ever turned over the product and read the list of ingredients and checked each over the internet for the side effects or the harm it can actually cause your skin?

Don't go on the flawless face and lustrous hair of the models advertising these products as half of it is actually digital photography! Think for yourself and learn about organic skin care products. There are many home made creams and secrets that can make you look absolutely fabulous or if you do not have the time to make these concoctions, go in for healthy natural organic skin care products right from moisturizers to face washes and creams to lotions.

Skin is a good absorbent and medically many medicines are introduced into the body with the help of skin especially skin patches. So, if you apply high chemicals infused cosmetics and skin care products, think what you skin is absorbing!

So, why abuse your skin and body - go in for gentle body care products that not only nourish your skin but also help you get flawless beautiful skin with no side effects. Costs may be a little higher than the normal chemical skin care products but after all that shows the quality of the product.

Most herbal and skin acre products have essential oils, which are the real essence and extract of a plant so you have natural fragrances and the benefits of aromatherapy in these products. Your skin will absorb all the qualities of essential oils and become soft, supple and rebuild the elasticity in the skin. Lemon, sage, lavender, chamomile, cedar wood, sandal are few of the essential oils used in skin care products and each has a positive benefit on your health.

There are many reputed stores both near you and online which stock only genuine, organic skin care products. You can be sure of the product quality and your skin type before you buy any product. Choosing what is good for you may become difficult when you see so many products, but get only reputed, good quality organic beauty care products, skin care creams, oils and lotions so that you really find signs of aging eliminated while your skin starts looking fresh, hydrated and beautiful.

Leave the world of chemicals and welcome Nature's bounty and miracles into your life. It is time to say hello to fresh, younger you again!

Read More……

Wednesday, 3 September 2008

Fantastic Method to Eliminate Cellulite!

Contrary to popular myth that cellulite is irreversible, cellulite can be removed!

However, you need to have an effective treatment as cellulite is a build up of several years and is not an overnight accumulation. It is the improper distribution of fat which is joined to the connective tissues in the body. The connective tissues are those which help n the distribution of fat below the skin surface and sometimes due to accumulation of toxins in the body, uneven distribution takes place leading to cellulite or lumping. You need not be obese to have cellulite, as even models are known to suffer from it!

It has a drastic effect on your self esteem and especially in the summer months you feel embarrassed wearing short skirts and minis. However, it not restricted to women as equal number of men suffer from it. Cellulite accumulates usually on the buttocks, things and hips which makes it unsightly when you need to wear a swimsuit.

Accumulation of toxins is one of the biggest reasons for cellulite formation as built in toxins hinder proper blood circulation. You must be wondering as to what you eat to accumulate so many toxins- well, think about all the preservatives, alcohol consumption, smoking, colors and artificial flavors all contribute to some extent for the toxin built up in the body. Improper drinking of water becomes the last straw.

To completely flush out toxins, one must drink at least 8 to 10 glasses of water which goes a long way to eliminate cellulite also as all of these are inter connected. Proper exercise and inclusion of fresh fruits and vegetable also helps. With research and study, many herbal creams and oils are now available which help in smoothening out the skin. The orange peel look is attributed to lumping up of fat cells under the thin layer of the skin. Effective remedies help in breaking the fat cells accumulations while walking, leg squats, leg exercises also help in proper blood circulation. A rejuvenating massage is also a good idea to reduce the cellulite lumps as massage helps to increase blood circulation and breaks muscle, fat lumps in the body.

There are many anti-cellulite creams, essential oils and lotions available which are known to be effective in curing cellulite completely. However, left alone cellulite creams will not be effective unless you exercise and increase blood circulation in the body but it can definitely go away, is a fact.
by: Darren Brent

Read More……

Sunday, 24 August 2008

Why Your Diet May Not Be As Rich In Iodine As You Assume

The trace mineral iodine is well known for its crucial role in enabling the body's manufacture of vital thyroid hormones, but it is also important for the health of the immune system and for optimal brain function. It is widely believed by many authorities that iodine deficiency should never be seen in the affluent West, although this problem affects millions throughout the developed world.

Some nutritionists argue, however, that this conventional view is too optimistic, because the content of all minerals in foods is heavily dependent on the mineral content of the soil from which those foods are derived. The assumption must therefore be that the continuing de-mineralisation of farm soils has led to a reduction in the amount of dietary iodine commonly consumed.

Fish and other seafood, however, remain a relatively rich source because these ocean creatures concentrate the sea's iodine in their flesh. Though not commonly eaten in the West, seaweed, or kelp, is also an excellent source of iodine for this reason, and is readily available in the form of a dietary supplements. Dairy products and certain meats may also be a good source, particularly where iodine is routinely added to farm animal feed. But in countries, including most of Western Europe, where animals are grazing fields growing on iodine depleted soils, levels are likely to be much lower.

So even in the West, those not including fish or seafood in their diets, and not using iodised or sea salt, may be at real risk of deficiency. In an effort to compensate for low levels of dietary iodine, the mineral has been routinely added to ordinary table salt in the US for many years. But the practice is not as common in the UK and other European countries, where specially iodised or natural "sea-salt" has been marketed more as a luxury alternative. The problem of insufficient dietary iodine has been compounded on both sides of the Atlantic, however, by increasing concern about the possible adverse health consequences, particularly high blood pressure, of excessive salt intake. Many nutritionists, however, regard these fears as exaggerated, and believe that any such potential problems are far less serious than the consequences of an insufficiency of iodine, and may be easily resolved by the use of the low sodium salt alternatives available.

Iodine, however, cannot in any case be regarded as a luxury. Its essential function lies in the production of the vital thyroid hormones; thyroxine, sometimes known as T4, and tri-iodothyronine, or T3. And as is well known, these hormones are crucially important in ensuring a healthy metabolic rate and the release of energy from food; so an underactive thyroid gland is commonly the villain in cases of excessive weight gain, particularly where this of sudden onset, and in cases of difficulty in losing weight even when following a sensible reducing programme. A healthy thyroid gland is also crucial for the optimal functioning of the immune system.

But perhaps even more importantly, iodine deficiency is also known as a major cause of avoidable brain damage; a problem which the World Health Organisation has estimated to affect an astonishing 50 million people worldwide. Sadly, many of these cases occur in children whose mothers were iodine deficient in pregnancy, resulting in a condition of severely retarded brain development known as congenital hypothyroidism, or "cretinism". Even where such catastrophic consequences are avoided, iodine deficiency in childhood may also have serious effects on the developing brain, leading to low energy and motivation for learning, and measurable impairment of IQ scores.

Since 2001 the Food and Nutrition Board of the US Institute of Medicine (FNB) has prescribed a Recommended Dietary Allowance for iodine of 150 mcg for all individuals over 14, rising to 220 mcg for pregnant women and 290 mcg for those breastfeeding. Somewhat confusingly, however, an excessive consumption of iodine is also associated with a malfunctioning or enlargement of the thyroid gland, as well as mouth ulcers, headaches and gastric upsets, and the FNB therefore advises an upper safe limit for daily iodine consumption of 1,100 mcg for adults. Most people eating a conventional Western diet are unlikely to exceed this level.

With the possible exception of pregnant and breastfeeding women, people in the West who use liberal quantities of iodised salt as a regular seasoning are unlikely to need further supplements. But many commercial multi-mineral preparations contain iodine in reasonable quantities, usually in the form of potassium iodide, and whilst not perhaps strictly necessary, such supplementary doses will do no harm and may be regarded as a useful insurance policy given that, like all minerals needed by the body, iodine functions best in the presence of adequate supplies of all the others. And it should be particularly noted in this context that the effects of any deficiency of iodine may be intensified by any deficiency of selenium, iron or vitamin A.

Read More……

Tuesday, 12 August 2008

How can HIV transmission be prevented?

HIV can be transmitted in three main ways:

* Sexual transmission
* Transmission through blood
* Mother-to-child transmission

Wherever there is HIV, all three routes of transmission will take place. However the number of
infections resulting from each route will vary greatly between countries and population groups.

For each route of transmission there are things that an individual can do to reduce or eliminate risk. There are also interventions that have been proven to work at the community, local and national level.

To be successful, an HIV prevention programme must make use of all approaches known to be effective, rather than just implementing one or a few select actions in isolation. The share of resources allocated to each area should reflect the nature of the local epidemic - for example, if most infections occur among men who have sex with men then this group should be a primary target for prevention efforts.

Although most of this page looks separately at each transmission route, it should be remembered
that many people don’t fit into only one “risk category”. For example, injecting drug users need access to condoms and safer sex counselling as well as help to reduce the risk of transmission through blood.

First requirements

There are three key things that can be done to help prevent all forms of HIV transmission. First among these is promoting widespread awareness of HIV and how it can be spread. Media campaigns and education in schools are among the best ways to do this.

Another essential part of a prevention programme is HIV counselling and testing. People living with HIV are less likely to transmit the virus to others if they know they are infected and if they have received counselling about safer behaviour. In particular, a pregnant woman who has HIV will not be able to benefit from interventions to protect her child unless her infection isdiagnosed. Those who discover they are uninfected can also benefit, by receiving counselling on how to remain that way.

The third key factor is providing antiretroviral treatment. This treatment enables people living with HIV to enjoy longer, healthier lives, and as such it acts as an incentive for HIV testing. It also brings HIV-positive people into contact with health care workers who can deliver prevention messages and interventions. Studies suggest that HIV-positive people may be less likely to engage in risky behaviour if they are enrolled in treatment programmes. Nevertheless, it is also possible that widespread availability of treatment may make some members of the wider population less fearful of HIV infection, and hence less willing to take precautions.
Sexual transmission

What works?

Someone can eliminate or reduce their risk of becoming infected with HIV during sex by choosing to:

* Abstain from sex or delay first sex
* Be faithful to one partner or have fewer partners
* Condomise, which means using male or female condoms consistently and correctly

There are a number of effective ways to encourage people to adopt safer sexual behaviour,including media campaigns, social marketing, peer education and small group counselling. These activities should be carefully tailored to the needs and circumstances of the people they intend to help. Specific programmes should target key groups such as young people, women, men who have sex with men, injecting drug users and sex workers.

Comprehensive sex education for young people is an essential part of HIV prevention. This should include training in life skills such as negotiating healthy sexual relationships, as well as accurate and explicit information about how to practise safer sex. Studies have shown that this kind of comprehensive sex education is more effective at preventing sexually transmitted infections than education that focuses solely on teaching abstinence until marriage.

Numerous studies have shown that condoms, if used consistently and correctly, are highly effective at preventing HIV infection.10 Also there is no evidence that promoting condoms leads to increased sexual activity among young people. Therefore condoms should be made readily and consistently available to all those who need them.

There is now very strong evidence that male circumcision reduces the risk of HIV transmission from woman to man by around 50%, which is enough to justify its promotion as an HIV prevention measure in some high-prevalence areas.12 However, studies suggest that circumcision does not reduce the likelihood of male-to-female transmission, and the effect on male-to-male transmission is unknown.
Some sexually transmitted infections - most notably genital herpes - have been found to facilitate HIV transmission during sex. Treating these other infections may therefore contribute to HIV prevention.
Trials in which HIV-negative people were given daily treatment to suppress genital herpes have found no reduction in the rate at which they become infected with HIV. Nevertheless,there is evidence to suggest that treating genital herpes in HIV positive people may reduce the risk of them transmitting HIV to their partners. Further research is ongoing.
One group that shouldn’t be overlooked by HIV prevention programmes is those who are already living with the virus. Regular counselling can help HIV positive people to sustain safer sexual behaviour, and so avoid onward transmission.

What are the obstacles?

It is usually not easy for people to sustain changes in sexual behaviour. In particular, young people often have difficulty remaining abstinent, and women in male-dominated societies are frequently unable to negotiate condom use, let alone abstinence. Many couples are compelled to have unprotected sex in order to have children. Others associate condoms with promiscuity or lack of trust.

Some societies find it difficult to discuss sex openly, and some authorities restrict what subjects can be discussed in the classroom, or in public information campaigns, for moral or religious reasons.

Particularly contentious issues include premarital sex, condom use and homosexuality, the last of which is illegal or taboo in much of the world. Marginalisation of groups at high risk - such as sex workers and men who have sex with men - can be a major hindrance to HIV prevention efforts; authorities are often unwilling to allocate adequate resources to programmes targeting these groups.
Safe male circumcision demands considerable medical resources and some cultures are strongly opposed to the procedure.

AVERT.org has more about preventing sexual transmission of HIV.

Transmission through blood
What works?

People who share equipment to inject recreational drugs risk becoming infected with HIV from other drug users. Methadone maintenance and other drug treatment programmes are effective ways to help people eliminate this risk by giving up injected drugs altogether. However, there will always be some injecting drug users who are unwilling or unable to end their habit, and these people should be encouraged to minimise the risk of infection by not sharing equipment.
Needle exchange programmes have been shown to reduce the number of new HIV infections without encouraging drug use. These programmes distribute clean needles and safely dispose of used ones, and also offer related services such as referrals to drug treatment centres and HIV counselling and testing. Needle exchanges are a necessary part of HIV prevention in any community that contains injecting drug users.

Also important for injecting drug users are community outreach, small group counselling and other activities that encourage safer behaviour and access to available prevention options. Transfusion of infected blood or blood products is the most efficient of all ways to transmit HIV.
However, the chances of this happening can be greatly reduced by screening all blood supplies for the virus, and by heat-treating blood products where possible. In addition, because screening is notquite 100% accurate, it is sensible to place some restrictions on who is eligible to donate, provided that these are justified by epidemiological evidence, and don’t unnecessarily limit supply or fuel prejudice. Reducing the number of unnecessary transfusions also helps to minimise risk.
The safety of medical procedures and other activities that involve contact with blood, such as tattooing and circumcision, can be improved by routinely sterilising equipment. An even better optionis to dispose of equipment after each use, and this is highly recommended if at all possible. Health care workers themselves run a risk of HIV infection through contact with infected blood. The most effective way for staff to limit this risk is to practise universal precautions, which means actingas though every patient is potentially infected. Universal precautions include washing hands and using protective barriers for direct contact with blood and other body fluids.

What are the obstacles?

Despite the evidence that they do not encourage drug use, some authorities still refuse to support needle exchanges and other programmes to help injecting drug users. Restrictions on pharmacies selling syringes without prescriptions, and on possession of drug paraphernalia, can also hamper HIV prevention programmes by making it harder for drug users to avoid sharing equipment.
Many resource-poor countries lack facilities for rigorously screening blood supplies. In addition a lot of countries have difficulty recruiting enough donors, and so have to resort to importing blood or paying their citizens to donate, which is not the best way to ensure safety. In much of the world the safety of medical procedures in general is compromised by lack of resources, and this may put both patients and staff at greater risk of HIV infection.

AVERT.org has more about preventing HIV transmission among injecting drug users and in health care settings.

Mother-to-child transmission

What works?

HIV can be transmitted from a mother to her baby during pregnancy, labour and delivery, and later through breastfeeding. The first step towards reducing the number of babies infected in this way is to prevent HIV infection in women, and to prevent unwanted pregnancies. There are a number of things that can be done to help a pregnant woman with HIV to avoid passing her infection to her child. A course of antiretroviral drugs given to her during pregnancy and labour as well as to her newborn baby can greatly reduce the chances of the child becoming infected. Although the most effective treatment involves a combination of drugs taken over a long period, even a single dose of treatment can cut the transmission rate by half.

A caesarean section is an operation to deliver a baby through its mother’s abdominal wall, which
reduces the baby’s exposure to its mother’s body fluids. This procedure lowers the risk of HIV
transmission, but is likely to be recommended only if the mother has a high level of HIV in her
blood, and if the benefit to her baby outweighs the risk of the intervention.

Weighing risks against benefits is also critical when selecting the best feeding option. The WorldHealth Organisation advises mothers with HIV not to breastfeed whenever the use of replacements is acceptable, feasible, affordable, sustainable and safe. However, if safe water is not available then the risk of life-threatening conditions from replacement feeding may be greater than the risk from breastfeeding. An HIV positive mother should be counselled on the risks and benefits of different infant feeding options and should be helped to select the most suitable option for her situation.

What are the obstacles?

In much of the world a lack of drugs and medical facilities limits what can be done to preventmother-to-child transmission of HIV. Antiretroviral drugs are not widely available in manyresource-poor countries, caesarean section is often impractical, and many women lack the
resources needed to avoid breastfeeding their babies.
HIV-related stigma is another obstacle to preventing mother-to-child transmission. Some women areafraid to attend clinics that distribute antiretroviral drugs, or to feed their babies formula, in case by doing so they reveal their HIV status.

AVERT.org has more about preventing mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) and why PMTCT programmes are failing to reach most women in need.


Policy measures

To be successful, a comprehensive HIV prevention programme needs strong political leadership. This means politicians and leaders in all sectors must speak out openly about AIDS and not shy away from difficult issues like sex, sexuality and drug use. An effective response requires strategic planning based on good quality science and surveillance, as well as consideration of local society and culture. All sectors of the population should be actively involved in the response, including employers, religious groups, non-governmental organisations and HIV-positive people. Many of the world's most successful HIV prevention efforts have been led by the affected communities themselves.
HIV epidemics thrive on stigma and discrimination related to people living with the virus and to marginalised groups such as sex workers. Their spread is also fuelled by gender inequality, which restricts what women can do to protect themselves from infection. Protecting and promoting human rights should be an essential part of any comprehensive HIV prevention strategy. This includes legislating against the many forms of stigma and discrimination that increase vulnerability.

Read More……

Saturday, 2 August 2008

Sure Shot Younger Looking Skin Formula!

With big brands spending millions of dollars on advertising, people think that these products will be the best. But have you ever turned over the product and read the list of ingredients and checked each over the internet for the side effects or the harm it can actually cause your skin?

Don't go on the flawless face and lustrous hair of the models advertising these products as half of it is actually digital photography! Think for yourself and learn about organic skin care products. There are many home made creams and secrets that can make you look absolutely fabulous or if you do not have the time to make these concoctions, go in for healthy natural organic skin care products right from moisturizers to face washes and creams to lotions.

Skin is a good absorbent and medically many medicines are introduced into the body with the help of skin especially skin patches. So, if you apply high chemicals infused cosmetics and skin care products, think what you skin is absorbing!

So, why abuse your skin and body - go in for gentle body care products that not only nourish your skin but also help you get flawless beautiful skin with no side effects. Costs may be a little higher than the normal chemical skin care products but after all that shows the quality of the product.

Most herbal and skin acre products have essential oils, which are the real essence and extract of a plant so you have natural fragrances and the benefits of aromatherapy in these products. Your skin will absorb all the qualities of essential oils and become soft, supple and rebuild the elasticity in the skin. Lemon, sage, lavender, chamomile, cedar wood, sandal are few of the essential oils used in skin care products and each has a positive benefit on your health.

There are many reputed stores both near you and online which stock only genuine, organic skin care products. You can be sure of the product quality and your skin type before you buy any product. Choosing what is good for you may become difficult when you see so many products, but get only reputed, good quality organic beauty care products, skin care creams, oils and lotions so that you really find signs of aging eliminated while your skin starts looking fresh, hydrated and beautiful.

Leave the world of chemicals and welcome Nature's bounty and miracles into your life. It is time to say hello to fresh, younger you again!

Read More……

Monday, 28 July 2008

Health Center Staff Take Lead Role In Preparing Their Campuses For Pandemic Flu

It sounds like the plot of the next blockbuster movie. A third of the world’s population is struck down by a deadly virus that spreads across the globe so rapidly that there is no time to develop a vaccine. Up to half of those infected – even young, healthy adults – die. But as health professionals know, this scenario is not just a flight of fancy. It could be the very real effects of the next pandemic flu outbreak, particularly if H5N1 (also known as highly pathogenic avian flu) is the virus in question, and it is this knowledge that is pushing not just federal and state government but organizations and businesses throughout the world to develop a strategy to tackle it.

Within colleges and universities, the burden of pandemic flu planning is likely to fall upon many student health directors, even at institutions with environmental health and safety departments. John Covely, a consultant on pandemic flu planning and the co-author of the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill’s pandemic plan, explains why this is so.

“Traditionally, emergency planning originates from public safety, or environment health and safety, but a communicable disease poses the biggest threat to students in group quarters. Thus, student health directors are often leading the emergency planning effort for the whole university, because the entire plan - not just the student health component - could be the difference in life or death for their students.”

The importance of having a campus-wide plan that is ready – not just in the preliminary stages – when the pandemic strikes is all the more clear when you consider that, unlike seasonal flu, H5N1 has an increased risk for the typical student demographic of young, healthy adults. The startlingly high mortality rate of up to 60 percent is partly due to a protein, also found in the strain of virus responsible for the 1918 pandemic flu outbreak, which causes a response in a healthy immune system known as a “cytokine storm”, often leading to respiratory failure and death.

Planning for such a massive and yet unpredictable event may seem a formidable task, but Dr. Anita Barkin, chair of the American College Health Association’s pandemic planning committee, counsels that those universities and colleges that have yet to formulate a pandemic plan shouldn’t feel overwhelmed by the work that lies before them. “Pandemic planning is about good emergency preparedness. The things we do to prepare for any emergency are the things we would do to prepare for pandemic flu,” she explains.

Although the tragic Virginia Tech shootings this spring were a different kind of emergency, the issues are similar to the issues faced in the event of a pandemic flu outbreak. Coordinating resources, communicating with everyone on campus and deciding at what stage classes should be called off are questions that have to be answered in most emergency situations. Take your pandemic planning one step at a time, advises Barkin. “The first step is to find out whether there is an existing emergency plan on campus,” she says. “If

there is, who is in charge of it? Health providers on campus should then take charge and begin to formulate the plan.”

There are many unknown factors, but build the framework of the plan first with the elements you can be sure of. Form a committee with all key areas represented, including executive leadership.

ACHA’s Guidelines for Pandemic Planning provides a list as an example that may help you collate this. Identify the functions that will be critical in the case of a pandemic and the personnel on campus responsible for each of these, making sure there are enough people representing each function that should some become sick, the plan is not compromised. Identify decision makers, a chain of command, and what channels of communication are to be used. Finally, decide on the role of student health services. Many campuses will have the student health director as the key decision maker in the event of a pandemic, but for some it will be more appropriate for the student health director to have an advisory role instead. In any case, college health professionals will be crucial to the success of every plan.

The biggest question that is central to every campus-wide pandemic plan: when is the right time to send students home? Covely warns that universities cannot necessarily wait for cues from state public health departments before they make their decisions. “The university has to have its own in-depth criteria in advance of a pandemic, and the student health director should be very involved in developing those criteria.”

Don't wait too long to send your students home. Nor should your trigger for this decision rely on the geographical proximity of the virus to your campus alone.

The factors that will determine how early you make the call to send students home will center on the composition of your student population. If your students are mostly from in-state, they will probably be traveling home by car and so you can wait slightly longer before canceling classes and closing the campus down. If many students live a long way away and are going to need to use mass transportation, you may have to act more quickly or risk being swamped with very ill students at a time when the local hospitals will not have the resources to help.

There are three main elements that will shape the logistics and the scale of your plan, and help you figure out the best trigger to send students home. Remember that, as Barkin comments, “The longer you wait, the higher the rate of infection, the less chance of being able to get students home and the less likely you can manage the burden of disease.”

These factors are as follows:

* Student demographics, particularly the number of students who live on campus and the number of non-local students who are likely to be dependent on care.

* The size of your staff (taking into account that up to 50 percent may be sick at one time).

* Your ability to stockpile enough basic supplies, including medications, as well as personal protective equipment such as respirators.

This is where things start to get more complicated, however. Most student health services can’t afford to stockpile many medical supplies. “ACHA is running a survey on pandemic planning,” reveals Barkin. “Of the schools that have responded, most have not stockpiled, or if they have, it’s not a lot.” This could clearly prove disastrous, and for many colleges is a manifestation of what Covely cites as one of the biggest challenges of pandemic planning for some universities: “getting buy-in from the executive leadership.” Pandemic planning is by no means a cost-free exercise.

One tip if you are facing resistance from campus decision-makers over spending money on
pandemic planning is to emphasize the fact that once you’ve formulated a response to a possible pandemic, you will have a robust emergency response strategy that can be adapted to fit virtually any emergency, whether it’s evacuation in the event of wildfires, such as Pepperdine University faced recently, a terrorist threat, or an “active shooter”. Investment in, say, developing a Web site with emergency information and updates can be a public relations bonus and a reliable resource.

Villanova University’s plan includes broadcasting SMS text messages and e-mails and using an emergency Web page for mass communication.

Dr. Mary McGonigle, director of the student health center at Villanova University, says that their dialogue with their local health department led to Villanova being assessed and labeled a “push” site, a location that is self-sufficient in this type of emergency. She explains:

“In the event of a pandemic, we’d go and pick up supplies from the county and then administer medicine to our Villanova community. That includes students, faculty and their families.”

Help from the county is a financial boon but being self-sufficient and staying local also lowers the risk of spreading the virus so rapidly. The dialogue helps your local health services too. If your local hospitals are likely to have a shortage of beds, they may want to use college dorms for surge capacity at the peak of a pandemic. In return, they may be able to offer you some resources, although research suggests that most hospitals have not had the budget to be able to stockpile effectively either.

The ongoing and fluid nature of pandemic planning is very much evident in some of the complex and thorny issues that have no definitive answer. These may need to be revisited and rethought as scientific discoveries are made, as you approach a pandemic, and if your college’s resources change. One such issue is the availability of expensive antivirals. The federal government has announced that it is stockpiling them and coming up with a strategy for distribution, which might seem to take some of the financial pressure off student health services. Barkin however has a caveat. “I’m concerned that stockpiles would not be distributed in enough of a timely fashion to make an impact on the community. Katrina is a situation that has to come to mind.”

Even if you did manage to persuade campus decision-makers to invest budget in stockpiling
antivirals, a potentially challenging feat, there’s a chance that they would be ineffective by the time a pandemic occurs, as overuse can cause the emergence of a resistant strain. Barkin explains that infectious disease experts are talking about using a treatment cocktail – Tamiflu plus one or two other agents - to protect against the emergence of resistant strains, but this would be prohibitively expensive for the average college health center.

Another ethical dilemma surrounding pandemic planning concerns who should get prepandemic
vaccines. Scientists are developing vaccines based on the strain of avian flu that has been
circulating in Asia, hoping that the vaccine would be enough of a match to combat the illness until a proper vaccine could be developed six months after the pandemic’s emergence. But supplies of this prepandemic vaccine will be limited.

“Some of the conversations around who should get these prepandemic vaccines are very complex,” says Barkin. “Should it be health care workers that get it, or public safety workers such as firemen? Should it be government officials, or the very young and elderly?” Recently, the federal government has announced a three-tiered approach to vaccination that it has developed in consultation with public focus groups and ethicists that places health care workers in the second tier.

Whether your health center staff will receive the vaccine, whether it will be in a timely fashion, and how effective it will actually be, are all factors that will affect your pandemic plan greatly – and demonstrate how much of your planning has to leave room for the unknown.

One thing that is beyond question is the importance of student health services acting now.
Formulating a pandemic plan may be a slow and ponderous task, but there’s one vital aspect that will slow the spread of a pandemic and can be tackled by your department immediately without getting tangled in red tape and endless meetings.

This public health education can be a collaborative effort with human resources and residence life staff. Covely agrees and even suggests extending the scope beyond campus boundaries. “It’s part of being a good and responsible neighbor to the community,” he says.

Read More……

Saturday, 26 July 2008

Acne Vulgaris, the 8 Stages of Acne, Skin Care, Adult Acne, and Scar Removal Options.

What is Acne Vulgaris? This is a medical term used to describe most cases of acne. It really isn't as bad as it sounds! Vulgaris doesn't mean that the acne is vulgar, only that it means that it is common.

Be aware that there are many factors that contribute to acne. First, research indicates a propensity for acne may well be inherited. Parents who had acne in their teenage and young adult years may have children who are likewise prone to having acne in their teen and young adult years.

Next, clogged skin pores are certainly a major contributing factor for acne out-breaks. When pores become clogged with an excess production of sebum and mix with dead skin cells or makeup that isn't sufficiently cleaned from the skin, problems start to develop. When skin pores are clogged, bacteria are produced and pus starts to form causing a pimple, a white head or a black head.

The most commonly accepted causes for acne are hormonal imbalances. Hormones in boys and girls may become unbalanced during puberty, during menstrual cycles, when starting or stopping birth control pills, during times of extreme stress, and at other times as well.

All of the above situations can cause the body to over produce a male hormone which causes the sebaceous glands to produce sebum. The sebum combines with dead skin cells to block pores and acne develops. So, basically, it still comes back to blocked pores.

Other causes for acne include a lack of vitamins, minerals and trace elements that the body needs to maintain a healthy skin. Vitamins A, E and B6 are especially important in maintaining healthy skin as are zinc, essential fatty acids (EFA), Chromium and Selenium.

Most diets of teenagers and young adults do not contain these vitamins, minerals, and trace elements in sufficient quantity to maintain healthy skin and to help prevent the onset of Acne.

Acne: The 8 Stages:

Full blown, Stage 8 acne doesn't usually develop overnight. Acne is progressive condition. Acne is one of the diseases that are so common that it is sometimes just disregarded as a serious problem...like the common cold. It has been estimated that 95 of people will have at least a mild case of acne at some point in their lives.

Acne, much like the common cold, is usually treated by the sufferer with over-the-counter medications that alleviate the symptoms of the disease in the belief that it will simply go away all by itself....eventually. And, it usually does but not always.

Most people throughout their life will have the occasional pimple, zit, white head or black head.

Although these pesky little outbreaks do seem to appear at the most inopportune times, they really aren't a serious problem that requires medical attention. A little over-the-counter acne facial wash to help prevent another outbreak will usually take care of the problem. It isn't a big deal. This kind of acne is referred to as Stage 0 and really nothing to be concerned about unless the acne progresses to subsequent stages.

Acne stages are graded from 0 through 8. Zero is the least severe and 8 is the most serious of the stages. The stages are as follows:

Stage 1: There will be white heads and black heads with some mild inflammation. The outbreaks will start to occur more frequently. Using products that contain Benzyl Peroxide are in order.

Stage 2: There will be some papules in addition to the white heads and black heads. Papules are skin lesions that are solid and raised but usually small. This is still considered to be a very mild case of acne. Treatment can be continued using over-the-counter products that contain Salicylic Acid.

Stage 3: Stage 3 is the same as stage 2 but with more frequent occurrences.

Stage 4-5: Pustules begin to appear. Now, it's time to schedule an appointment at a dermatologist.

Stage 6-7: Nodules and cysts are forming. Scarring is going to start happening at this stage. Your dermatologist will begin to take more drastic action.

Stage 8: Breakouts are almost continuous and include nodules and cysts. There are modern technologies that will help and your dermatologist will advise you.

Acne Skin Care:

As we know, our hair follicles secrete sebum. Sebum makes its way up the hair follicles to the skin pores where it lubricates and protects the skin. Sometimes there are oil glands which get overworked, get enlarge, and produce too much sebum. The sebum can get trapped in the hair follicle.

When this happens the pores get clogged and black heads or white heads form and the bacteria start to multiply at an alarmingly fast rate.

Once you understand this process, you can see the reasoning behind the advice about caring for skin that has black heads, white heads and pustules on it.

The first piece of advice about caring for acne infected skin is to never pick at the pimples. Don't try to pop them and drain them. This will not cure them no matter what anybody tells you. Popping them will only serve to make them worse...not better.

However, there are things that you can do that really will help.

The first thing you can do is to wash your face with a mild soap or a sulfur based soap. Wash your face with just your finger tips. Don't ever use a wash cloth as it holds germs and bacteria. Rinse your face with clean water several times to ensure you remove all traces of soap, and then pat it dry with a clean towel. Do not rub your face with the towel and never use the same towel twice without it being clean.

Take a good multi-vitamin and multi-mineral supplement every day and drink at least 8 full glasses of water (not soda) every day. The vitamins and minerals will supply nutrients that are absent from most diets and the water will help to hydrate the skin as well as to flush toxins out of your system.

If you use over-the-counter acne medications, be certain that you follow the directions carefully and that you use a good sunscreen when you are outdoors as some acne medications make the skin more prone to sunburn.

Adult Acne:

Acne is not just a problem for teenagers and young adults. Once a person survives the teenage years, you would think that they don't have to deal with the embarrassment of acne any longer, right? Well....not exactly.

The sad truth is that about 25 of women will have acne at some time in their 20s, 30s or even 40s. Although there has never been a real cause established, it is believed that most adult acne is caused by the same thing that causes teenage acne...hormonal changes.

A doctor will sometimes prescribe hormonal treatments that will clear a case of adult acne right up. As with teenage acne, adult acne is not caused by diet. Stress has often been cited as one possible cause of adult acne but that assertion has never been verified.

Treating adult acne is a bit more difficult than treating teenage acne. Adults have the concern of drying out their skin that teenagers don't normally have to deal with. Adults don't want pimples; but, they don't want wrinkles, either. A dermatologist should be consulted if the acne is long lasting or is severe.

There are many treatments that are available to adults who suffer from acne. Most of the effective treatments are only available by prescription. Adults should not use over-the-counter acne medications that are intended for the treatment of teenage acne. These products tend to dry the skin and adults need to be concerned about wrinkling as well as acne.

A case of adult acne is not a happy occurrence to say because those ugly bumps always seem to occur at the most inopportune times and while a teenager may be embarrassed by acne, an adult is even more devastated.

Fortunately, there are treatments and a dermatologist has a lot of weapons in his arsenal to fight adult acne.

Acne Scar Removal Options:

Life hardly seems fair sometimes! First, a teenager or a young adult must suffer through acne, treat it, and have to live with it...sometimes for years. Then the acne is gone; but, the scars are there as a painful reminder of the mental and emotional agony the acne sufferer had to endure.

You're right, life doesn't seem fair; but, acne is one of those sad facts of life that some if not most of us have to deal with. The good news is there is help; unfortunately, it isn't free or cheap!

There are two basic procedures that are used to remove ugly pits and scars left over from a bad case of teenage or young adult acne. Laser resurfacing is the least expensive of the two available acne scar removal procedures. Dermabrasion is the second procedure.

Laser resurfacing can be done in the dermatologist office instead of a hospital so that provides a much greater financial savings. A laser is used to remove the top layer of skin and also to tighten the middle layer of skin.

The dermatologist will use a local anesthetic to help reduce the procedure pain. It usually takes several days for the skin to heal after a laser resurfacing procedure is completed. Very often, multiple resurfacing treatments must be done to achieve the desired results.

The second procedure used to remove acne scarring is called dermabrasion. In this procedure, a rotating wire brush is used to remove the top layer of skin. The body continually produces new skin and the new layer will be smoother than the layer that was removed. It usually takes between 10 days and 3 weeks for the skin to heal after a dermabrasion treatment. Once again, multiple treatments may be required to eliminate the scarring.

Acne may seem to be a devastating condition but with proper skin routine, vitamins, and over the counter products, most cases will not be severe. Remember, proper cleansing goes a long way towards minimizing outbreaks, so don't be afraid to cleanse your face 5 - 6 times a day of more if needed.

Fight acne by being smart. Take as many preventative steps as possible to avoid situations that create the opportunity for acne to develop. If acne does afflict you, consult a qualified medical professional before deciding on a course of action.


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Monday, 14 July 2008

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Wednesday, 9 July 2008

Diet Fitness - A Buddy Will Help You Lose Weight

One of the best ways to increase your diet fitness and stay consistent with your diet and exercise plan is to team up with a buddy. A diet buddy is a friend or co-worker who you partner up with so that the two of you help each other lose weight by staying focused and accountable for your actions. Many fitness experts agree that if you have a friend to rely on then you are much more likely to stick to your program and successfully lose weight.

Choosing a diet buddy is not hard but it can be a challenge to finds someone who you can trust and who will be honest with you. You need someone who will remind you not to eat junk food when you confess that you have fallen off the wagon and who will also be sympathetic to your guilty feelings. Try to find a person who has similar weight loss goals because if you want to lose 20 pounds and your buddy wants to lose 50 then you may not be compatible. Avoid choosing someone you live with, if possible, since the constant interaction will make you feel like your every move is being watched so try to choose a co-worker or close friend to help you out.

You should also choose a diet buddy who you will see on a regular basis. A really great way to stay on track is to meet at the gym every morning and then get something to eat afterward. You can compare notes and talk about what’s going on and how you are progressing. If breakfast doesn’t work then lunch is another good alternative.

You and your diet buddy should set goals and rewards for each other. When you hit a weight goal, you can celebrate by shopping for a new outfit that shows off your weight loss or you can go out together for a healthy dinner at a nice restaurant. You and your buddy are working together to help each other reach your goals so if you lose weight faster than your friend, be supportive and help them realize that everyone has a different body type and some people take longer to lose weight. On the flip side, be prepared for your friend to lose weight quicker than you and if that happens, be sure to cheer them on and reassure yourself that your consistency will pay off for you in the near future.
by: Michael Maroun

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Thursday, 3 July 2008

How to Cure High Blood Pressure- 7 Blood Pressure Secrets Doctors Won’t Tell You

Do you know how to cure high blood pressure with no medication? Most people would probably say to eat healthy (lower your salt-intake) and make sure you exercise. Unfortunately, most doctors tell you this and forget to tell you the other treatments you can be doing to lower your score and eventually be med-free.

The truth is that doctors are educated in medical schools were natural health and simple 'common sense' secrets are not taught. Unfortunately, medicine and antibiotics are only being taught because our medical industry is completely reliant upon pharmaceutical companies.

But new research is now showing the sometimes medicines are not the only treatment. In fact, some natural treatments are just as effective as their medicine counterpart.

Which is making some think, "Is there something doctors are NOT telling us?"

Naturally Treat High Blood Pressure

High Blood Pressure Medications (Diuretics, Beta Blockers, Alpha Blockers, and Vasodilators) work because they lower your blood pressure. The problem is that they make it look that you are healthy but are your numbers showing the truth?

High Blood Pressure medications work because they synthetically alleviate the pressure of the arteries and blood. For instance, with diuretics the blood will become less salty (less thick) and your pressure with drop. Another example would be beta blockers which synthetically cause the heart to beat slower.

Though these medications look good on paper, they are NOT treating the disease known as the 'silent killer'. In fact, they could be prolonging your life but they will never fully treat the disease. And statistics show that users will eventually die from the high blood pressure.

But what if you could naturally treat high blood pressure.

7 Hypertension Tips Your Doctor Won't Share with You

So you want to know, 'how to cure high blood pressure'? First, you need to know how to prevent high blood pressure holistically. Because curing high blood pressure starts with a holistic treatment. Holistically treating hypertension simply means using the 'whole' body to cure the problem. This is completely different than taking a pill to synthetically thin out the blood.

1. Three Miracle Minerals- If you are suffering from high blood pressure, you should be supplementing your diet with 3 miracle minerals that lower high blood pressure. Magnesium, Calcium and Potassium have been shown to help lower blood pressure.

2. Garlic- Garlic has been shown to benefit the heart, lower cholesterol and lower high blood pressure naturally. The compound in garlic, allicin, is thought to naturally lower high blood pressure. Find a quality supplement today.

3. Folic Acid- Vitamin B which is found in green leafy vegetables reduces homocysteine levels in the blood. This vitamin will lower the risk of heart disease and alleviate the pressure naturally.

4. Apple Cider Vinegar- Many or my customers have found success with apple cider vinegar which contains vitamins C, A, E, B1, B2 and B6, in addition to potassium, magnesium, and copper.

5. Relieve Stress- Do you know there are numerous ways to relieve stress? Breathing exercises, exercising, or reading a book are simple ways to relieve stress and lower high blood pressure. And there are even more than this!

6. Your Diet! You know the major Do's and Don'ts about high blood pressure dieting. Just remember to be eating your water-soluble fibers (fruits and vegetables). Fibers, especially water-soluble, will flush your system and plaque. Also, switch to whole grains! With less plaque in the arteries you will eventually be hypertension-free! Our HBP report goes into great detail about how you can treat hypertension with your diet.

7. Green Tea! It is loaded with antioxidants and research shows it lowers high blood pressure. Whether it is the 'relaxing' factor or the natural herbs in green tea, 1 cup of green tea will be helpful for your health!

Normalize your High Blood Pressure in 3 Weeks or Less

What foods should you be eating? What other vitamins are a must? What exercises are an absolute do? What herbs are making doctors scratch their heads? Why is chocolate now good for you?

Are you interested in lowering blood pressure naturally, with out drugs? We offer a 100% guaranteed, medical doctor-approved HBP Remedy Report which shares numerous natural health tips and guarantees to normalize your pressure in 3 weeks or less. If you are serious about living young again, please visit our How to Cure High Blood Pressure Website.

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Tuesday, 1 July 2008

Why Your Diet May Not Be As Rich In Iodine As You Assume

The trace mineral iodine is well known for its crucial role in enabling the body's manufacture of vital thyroid hormones, but it is also important for the health of the immune system and for optimal brain function. It is widely believed by many authorities that iodine deficiency should never be seen in the affluent West, although this problem affects millions throughout the developed world.

Some nutritionists argue, however, that this conventional view is too optimistic, because the content of all minerals in foods is heavily dependent on the mineral content of the soil from which those foods are derived. The assumption must therefore be that the continuing de-mineralisation of farm soils has led to a reduction in the amount of dietary iodine commonly consumed.

Fish and other seafood, however, remain a relatively rich source because these ocean creatures concentrate the sea's iodine in their flesh. Though not commonly eaten in the West, seaweed, or kelp, is also an excellent source of iodine for this reason, and is readily available in the form of a dietary supplements. Dairy products and certain meats may also be a good source, particularly where iodine is routinely added to farm animal feed. But in countries, including most of Western Europe, where animals are grazing fields growing on iodine depleted soils, levels are likely to be much lower.

So even in the West, those not including fish or seafood in their diets, and not using iodised or sea salt, may be at real risk of deficiency. In an effort to compensate for low levels of dietary iodine, the mineral has been routinely added to ordinary table salt in the US for many years. But the practice is not as common in the UK and other European countries, where specially iodised or natural "sea-salt" has been marketed more as a luxury alternative. The problem of insufficient dietary iodine has been compounded on both sides of the Atlantic, however, by increasing concern about the possible adverse health consequences, particularly high blood pressure, of excessive salt intake. Many nutritionists, however, regard these fears as exaggerated, and believe that any such potential problems are far less serious than the consequences of an insufficiency of iodine, and may be easily resolved by the use of the low sodium salt alternatives available.

Iodine, however, cannot in any case be regarded as a luxury. Its essential function lies in the production of the vital thyroid hormones; thyroxine, sometimes known as T4, and tri-iodothyronine, or T3. And as is well known, these hormones are crucially important in ensuring a healthy metabolic rate and the release of energy from food; so an underactive thyroid gland is commonly the villain in cases of excessive weight gain, particularly where this of sudden onset, and in cases of difficulty in losing weight even when following a sensible reducing programme. A healthy thyroid gland is also crucial for the optimal functioning of the immune system.

But perhaps even more importantly, iodine deficiency is also known as a major cause of avoidable brain damage; a problem which the World Health Organisation has estimated to affect an astonishing 50 million people worldwide. Sadly, many of these cases occur in children whose mothers were iodine deficient in pregnancy, resulting in a condition of severely retarded brain development known as congenital hypothyroidism, or "cretinism". Even where such catastrophic consequences are avoided, iodine deficiency in childhood may also have serious effects on the developing brain, leading to low energy and motivation for learning, and measurable impairment of IQ scores.

Since 2001 the Food and Nutrition Board of the US Institute of Medicine (FNB) has prescribed a Recommended Dietary Allowance for iodine of 150 mcg for all individuals over 14, rising to 220 mcg for pregnant women and 290 mcg for those breastfeeding. Somewhat confusingly, however, an excessive consumption of iodine is also associated with a malfunctioning or enlargement of the thyroid gland, as well as mouth ulcers, headaches and gastric upsets, and the FNB therefore advises an upper safe limit for daily iodine consumption of 1,100 mcg for adults. Most people eating a conventional Western diet are unlikely to exceed this level.

With the possible exception of pregnant and breastfeeding women, people in the West who use liberal quantities of iodised salt as a regular seasoning are unlikely to need further supplements. But many commercial multi-mineral preparations contain iodine in reasonable quantities, usually in the form of potassium iodide, and whilst not perhaps strictly necessary, such supplementary doses will do no harm and may be regarded as a useful insurance policy given that, like all minerals needed by the body, iodine functions best in the presence of adequate supplies of all the others. And it should be particularly noted in this context that the effects of any deficiency of iodine may be intensified by any deficiency of selenium, iron or vitamin A.

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